Minerals are formed in the Earth's crust by four major processes:
- magma- molten rock in the crust, as it cools this magma crystallizes to form minerals.
- precipitation- as water evaporates, the dissolved minerals are left behind (ex. limestone, gypsum).
- high pressure/high temperature- these minerals can recrystallize deep within the Earth's crust.
- hydrothermal solutions- hot water and dissolved substances can come into contact with existing minerals, and react to form new minerals.