Global winds are produced by the global pressure zones which encircle the Earth. These pressure zones are associated with certain world climate- such as the rain forest in the equatorial low and the world's great deserts in the sub-tropical high. Refer to your diagrams. These global winds are prevailing winds in that they constistantly blow from the same direction. Ex, the prevailing westerilies blow from the west.
Global winds distribute heat and moisture around the globe. Warm air will move towards the pole and cold air moves towards the equator.
These are small scale winds such as mountain, land and sea breezes which are found throughout the world on in certain areas. These winds develop because of heating of land and water and weak pressure differences are produces creating these breezes. Be sure to look at your diagrams.
An anemometer is used to measure windspeed, a barometer is used to measure pressure.
El Nino, La Nina
Check this link for information on Pacific Ocean surface temperature changes. These surface water changes impact the climate, fishing and farming practices in South America and to a lesser extent in the US.