- a fault is where Earth movement has occurred due to a release of elastic rebound energy.
- the spot inside the Earth where the earthquake started is the focus, while the area directly above the focus on the Earth's surface is the epicenter.
- surface waves- act like water waves and are the most destructive, slowest wave.
- p-waves- travel the fastest, push-pull (compressional) travel through solids and liquids.
- s-waves- slower than p-waves, transverse, can only go through solids.
An earthquake's position can be determined by 3 seismic stations that contain an instrument called a seismograph. Scientists use the moment magnitude scale for measuring the strength of earthquakes.